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The Study on Role of Environmental Conditions in Food Spoilage

The Study on Role of Environmental Conditions in Food Spoilage

After eating the food, the digestive system digestion cause a series of chemical interactions and physical activity in front of the body, and strengthens physical and mental. Sometimes foods are crumbling due to neglect by microorganisms in acid, mostly food spoilage by microorganisms (with bacteria) which is incorporated in the text, destroyed or deteriorate as a  result of one or more of the following:

By physical changes, such as changes caused by freezing, burning, drying and pressing, etc., are corrupted. This article is to study the role of environmental conditions in food spoilage and its effects on human life been written.

Introduction

Food is a material that spreads into the body after being eaten and swallowed and then in the body it is digested by the digestive system , and absorbed by the cells , it is consumed maintaining the activity of the body , growth of the body , repairing the cells of the body , and keeps the human alive.

Food, besides maintaining the growth of the body and keeping the body safe, also strengthens the mind and feeling of the human.

Food spoilage by microorganisms and enzymes depend on the number and the kind of factors existing in their environment. Most of the raw foods, depending to the existing conditions, contain different kinds of bacteria, zymogenic, fungus, even plants enzymes and parasites.

Due to a specific environmental condition, only a small part of these microorganisms are able to grow fast and cause decay.   Usually one kind of microorganism and sometimes more microorganisms involve in decay of foods, but all of them usually may not exist in foods.

The aim of this essay is to understand, what factors and what kind of microorganisms are the cause of food deterioration. Are all the foods have the same chemical and physical property? Or the effects of environmental condition causes the decay of foods?

Based on the theory of the English scientists Tam and Hunter in 1924, an operation is called a safe food while a consumers knows about the process of production and the usage of that food, and eat it,

On the other hand if the person who tries the food rejects it as an unsafe food, it counted rotten food. . (Habored j. b. 1975)

According to this definition , the safety of a food is depended on the opinion of the person who judges the food , the food which may be diagnosed healthy by one person while on other one maybe not approve it safe.

The food are divided into three groups regarding the ease of deterioration and the environmental condition:

1. Consistent and none decaying foods: are materials that are not decayed, unless the right condition is neglected during checking them out, these materials are such as, sugar, flour, bean and ….

2. The food stuff which are in the middle from the decaying point: if these material are stored appropriately, they will be kept without deterioration for a long time, such as. Potato, onion,

3. The decaying food stuff:  these foods are the daily largely used material that if they are not properly stored and kept, their decay is certain and in a short period of time, meat, fish, and most of the fruits are of this group.

Most of the food stuff belong to one of these three groups, but also there are some exceptions which are in the middle of these three groups. And it is difficult to determine the real position of them.

Spoilage may increase the microorganisms existing in the food or even may add more new kind of them to the food. Thus, the water which is used for washing may create bacterial contamination to the surface of butter. The tool and instruments of factory may create microorganisms during the operation of preparing the food that are responsible to decaying of food. Like this the washing machines transfer the contamination to the eggs and boat transfer the contamination to the fish.

Increasing the microorganism Bio burden specially those which cause to create the decay of foods, makes it difficult to keep and store these material. It means decaying happens much more rapid and more probable than the time when there is no spoilage, microorganisms on the surface or inside the food clearly increase the number or the bio burden of them, probably in most of the food stuff, the most common factor of microorganism increasing, especially the ones that are the cause of decaying the food, are microorganisms. In case there are more bio burden and the number of microorganisms are more than the usual quantity, the method of preventing from the food decaying face with more difficulty, and this will be effective to the expected kind of deterioration.

Keeping and protection of the food stuff maybe getting rid of some microorganism, changing the variety of the existing kinds, or deactivating a part or all of the enzymes in the food,.

So keeping the factors that are the cause of the decay and effective for spreading the deterioration of food limited are involved effectively.  For example, : washing may cause the exclusion of microorganisms, or may cause to add some of them to the material. So if the washing is done by the disinfecting solutions, the number of the microorganisms highly reduce or even some of them may be completely removed.

Using the some rays, ozone , and the microbe killing steams can reduce microorganisms considerably. More of the microorganisms are killed by increasing the temperature and very little number of them remain alive.

The methods of storing can cause the decreasing or increasing the number of the microorganisms. Any of these methods effects on the kind, number, ratio and on the health of the microorganisms into the food.

Of the most important effects of the microorganisms on each other can be the metabolic factors, this is happened when an organism creates the favorable condition for growing another organism.

Tow organisms may grow at the same time. But often one of them is more successful. Most of yeasts and natural biodegradation of food   are based on this principle. Raw milk exposed to temp nature of room

is fermented in (Streptococcus Lactase). This action continues till the growth and exercise of this bacteria is stopped by the scale of acid.

Afterwards, acid- resistant-Lactobacilli increases its acidity till their action is stopped. In this way environmental conditions determine that which types of microorganisms in food stuffs grow  and result in food spoilage  especially in aforementioned  substance.

The constitutive factors of this environment are in connection, and finally the grown and effect- generative microorganism determines itself. Chemical and physical specifications can be considered as the most important factors.

The physical state of foodstuff,  its colloid nature and the issue whether is deep frozen , wet or dry, its biological structure have significant impacts on food spoilage and the type of the spoilage.

Existent water in food stuff, substitution locality and easey access are   the most important ingredient that influence microbial growth. It can be conceived that water has importance as a needful chemical mixture for growth and also as a part of foodstuff's physical structure.

Microorganisms need to moisture for growth and the best time for their growth is to have enough and suitable moisture. This moisture must be only in Microorganisms access. It means that it is not dependent and involved to any other thing; such as what is visible about soluble substances or Hydrophilic Material like (agar agar). Soluble substances like salt and solution sugar in water cause osmoses pressure creation in solution and in case of high solution density in outside of cell than inside trend to evoke water from cells.

It must be mentioned that when the air moisture is equal with the moisture of foodstuffs active water, and temperature around it is balanced in moisture scale perspective, there is exceedingly likely to have the foodstuffs like dry bread covered in mold spoilage.

High sugar content in Honey and low temperature of it pave the ground for growth of yeasts (Osmophilic) and naturally west foodstuffs such as milk, meat, fish and egg are exposed to spoilage.Different factors should be considered in identification of the type of spoilage –responsible -microorganisms apart from moisture. For instance, grape extract can be a good environment for growth of yeasts due to high sugar content and low PH.

The stored food in refrigerator may be in mold with existence of air but they are spoiled in non-oxygen condition by bacteria. Furthermore, the high level of sugar in honey make an inappropriate environment for the growth of yeast but there is the possibility of some fungi growth. Due to use of anti-fungal agent, it rarely contaminated by fungi. There is not any possibility of spoiled in food stuffs when the heat of the room is in a low range of about 0, 07 percent.

The available moisture level in some food stuffs are approximately as follows:

8% in milk

10% to 11% for completely dry eggs

13% to 15% for flour

15% for non-fat powdered milk

5% for non-fat meat and water

14% to 209% in non-water vegetable seeds

18% to 25% in non-water fruits and 18% in starch {Kings.D.1990}

Freezing action not only prevents the growth of microorganisms due to low heat but also  it leads to harm in the tissues and extracts which released through this make the condition reasonable for microorganisms growth .Also, during the freezing action ,density of substances increase with decreasing of heat in frozen section and the growth of organisms which are able to grow at less than zero degrees become slow and finally it stops .freezing  causes removal of water from Hydrofoil colloids (that heat is not effective for them as well).

Thermal operations not only cause changing in combination of chemical foodstuff, but also changes its structure by softening tissues, driving moisture out, destructing or forming of colloid suspension and changing in water and oxygen permeability, in food stuff from physical perspective. Proteins are possibly neutral and attainable for organisms than natural kind of them. It is determined from chemical combination of food stuff that how extensive it can be considered an appropriate cultivation environment for microorganism. Each organism has a number of singular features for their potential in terms of using some stuff as energy source, carbon and oxygen. Properties of some food stuff which are probably effective in terms of microorganism are the following.

a) PH- or density of hydrogen Ion

b) Foodstuff Supply

c) Potential oxidation and reduction

d) Presence of inhibitory substance

e) Usually the higher temperature than 35-37c0  is not proper for molds and fermentations growth ,therefore, these organisms do not create problem for foods which are kept in the higher temperatures. In other words, molds and fermentations have a proper growth in room temperature, and some of them also can grow in low temperatures, even up to freezing point and lower than it.

f) Even though some bacteria has the best growth in a normal room temperature, some type of them such Thermophile Bacteria and Psychrophilic Bacteria in a sequence have the best growth in higher and lower temperatures.

Therefore, moulds are often grown in frozen food and also Termite batteries have better growth on hot bleaching containers. Different temperatures in which raw milk is kept cause the growth of various batteries in it. In temperature close to the deep freeze, environment for bacteria that tolerates coldness is reasonable for different kinds of batteries like: (pseudomonades). In room heat the growth of (Streptococcus lactic) is better done. In 40-45 centigrade degrees (Streptococcus) will grow better. Always remember that in temperature which food stuffs are stored can cause food breakup automatically and, as a result, become more sensitive to Microbial spoilage.

Conclusion

Foodstuffs are materials which are formed by organic combinations. Numerous microorganisms have had role in dissolution, and cause physical and chemical changes which result in creation of spoilage in foodstuffs.

The spoilage of foodstuffs happen under numbers of factors which has already been pointed in the text; however, sometimes changing is applicable only in one of the indicated factors for limitation of the expectable effects. But the combination of numbers of factors together show its effect. Thus, the mixing of the factors like: low wet, refrigerator heat, high acidity, and high level of sugar, several times increase the probability growth of molds than bacteria and yeasts more. Whilst the increase of moisture and heat has changed the condition on benefit of yeasts, the decrease of acidity and sugar is effective in growth of bacteria. Overall, we can say that protection of foodstuffs depend on environmental condition, and existence of factors which we mentioned above cause to creation of spoilage in foodstuffs. Observing environmental conditions in protecting foodstuffs has avoided foodstuffs spoilage, and have had key role in family healthcare, and by avoiding from useless expenses result to increase in the economic level of society. 

Reference

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2. Safaneyan, Shila. (1338). Microbiology Mohetheye Abi. Tehran Daneshgah Keshvarzi.

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